RETINA & UVEA
At Eye Life™- eye hospital diseases related to retina and uvea are managed by Dr Gaurav Shah, the best retina specialist in Mumbai. Common retinal diseases include retinal detachment, diabetic retinopathy, vitreous haemorrhage, central retinal vein occlusion, age related macular degeneration (ARMD), retinal trauma, uveitis, ocular tuberculosis, HIV infection of the eye etc. Retinal diseases may appear suddenly and can lead to permanent loss of vision. Thus retinal diseases need prompt attention and treatment.
Retinal detachment is a condition in which the retina is gets torn suddenly. This is more common in patients with myopia or minus number. They can occur spontaneously or following trauma or injury. Spontaneous retinal detachment can originate from lattice degeneration or weak spots in the retina which are more commonly found in individuals with myopia or minus number. Retinal detachment can be treated with retinal surgery like Vitrectomy, scleral buckling etc. Also individuals who are myope or have minus number should undergo yearly dilated retinal examination by retina specialist to look for presence of lattice degeneration and get retina laser done, if required.
In patients with longstanding and uncontrolled Diabetes, retinal problems can occur, which is called as Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy can lead to growth of abnormal blood vessels on the retina leading to haemorrhages within the retina. In very advanced cases sudden and complete loss of vision can occur due to vitreous haemorrhage or tractional retinal detachment. Diabetic retinopathy can also cause diabetic macular edema wherein fluid accumulates in the central part of the retina leading to loss of vision. The best treatment for Diabetic retinopathy is prevention which requires regular retinal check up by retinal specialist and good control of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy can be treated by retina lasers, injections like Avastin, Lucentis etc. More complicated cases may also require surgery like Vitrectomy.
AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
Age related macular degeneration or ARMD occurs in elderly individuals, usually affects both eyes and is a leading cause of blindness in the United States. ARMD leads to appearance of a black spot whenever one tries to look at something thus leading to difficulty in identifying faces and in near work. ARMD is of two types – dry and wet. Dry ARMD is usually a milder form of the disease while wet ARMD can lead to development of abnormal membranes within the retina leading to bleeding and severe loss of vision. ARMD can be treated with the help of injections like Avastin, Lucentis etc.
Vitreous haemorrhage means bleeding within the vitreous jelly of the eye which can cause sudden loss of vision in that eye. The important causes of vitreous haemorrhage include Diabetic retinopathy, Trauma etc. Vitreous haemorrhage can cause sudden onset, painless drop in vison and can be recurrent if primary cause is not treated. Vitreous haemorrhage can be recurrent ifprimary cause is not treated. Treatment of vitreous haemorrhage include injections like Avastin, Lucentis or vitrectomy surgery, if required.
CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION (CRVO)
Central retinal vein occlusion or CRVO can occur due to occlusion or blockage of the main or central retinal vein due to diseases like hypertension (blood pressure), hyperlipidaemia(excess lipids/cholesterol in the blood) and various other causes. CRVO can cause sudden onset, painless decrease in vision, usually involving one eye. Venous occlusion can also occur involving other branches of retinal vein and is called as Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Management of CRVO includes blood and other investigations to find out the cause. Treatment includes Lasers, injection Avastin, Lucentis and treatment of underlying cause.
Uveitis is a distinct disease entity characterized by increased inflammation within the eye. It causes decreased vision and may be associated with pain, redness etc. Uveitis may affect one part of the eye (anterior/posterior uveitis) or the entire eye (panuveitis). Uveitis may be idiopathic (unknown cause) or associated with systemic disease like tuberculosis, HIV,toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis,wegener’s granulomatosis, HLA B27 positivity etc. Management of uveitis includes blood and other investigations to find out the cause and to prevent recurrence. Treatment includes topical and systemic steroids and other immunosuppressives.